When to Double Consonants at the End of a Word

Double Consonants When a word ends in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, double the consonant before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel, but don't double when adding a suffix beginning with a consonant.

Ex:

  • slug + -ish = sluggish
  • beg + -ed = begged
  • shop + -ing> = shopping
  • big + -est = biggest
  • glad + -en> = gladden
  • stop + -able = stoppable
  • fit + -ing = fitting
  • spot + -ed = spotted
  • ... it's a two-syllable word with an accent on the last syllable followed by a suffix beginning with a vowel.

    Ex:

  • begin + -ing = beginning
  • regret + -able = regrettable
  • Do not double the final consonant when adding a suffix beginning with a consonant. Examples..

  • glad -> gladly
  • drop -> droplet
  • fit -> fitness
  • spot -> spotless

    some exceptions:

  • chagrin -> chagrined, chagrining
  • combat ->combated, combating
  • chaperon -> chaperoned
  • defer -> deference
  • prefer -> preference
  • refer -> reference
  • transfer -> transference
  • gas -> gaseous, gasify, but gassed, gassing

    both canceled and cancelled are acceptable (weird, but true)